Water splitting technology is characterized by a process that uses a chemical reaction to separate water (H2O) into oxygen and hydrogen. Effective water splitting can be achieved using a number of different techniques including electrolysis, photosynthesis, photoeclectrochemical, photocatalytic, radiolysis, photobiological, and thermolysis. Highly conformal ALD has proven critical to optimize cell efficiencies as latest achievements have focused on the use of nanoparticles and thin film catalysts to split water at lower reaction temperatures. Economical and efficient water splitting is a critical component for hydrogen generation as an alternative energy source. Research in this field will investigate and test the feasibility of transitioning to a hydrogen economy.
Atomic layer deposition techniques can be used to create high surface area structures for wafer splitting applications. The fabrication of high surface area conducting and transparent frameworks were developed for the photo-oxidation of water (water splitting).
Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) films using the Savannah® S200 were deposited using the Exposure mode technique for ITO and Fe2O3 on inverse opal structures, to generate a high surface area nanostructure.
High specific surface area transparent and conducting frameworks for photo-oxidation of water. Iron oxide Fe2O3, ITO and SiO2 are deposited by ALD on an inverse scaffold structure.
Ref: Riha, S. C, et al.. Acs Appl Mater Inter 5, 360–367 (2013).
Ti alloying was used to improve ultrathin (6 nm thick) hematite conversion efficiencies, in particular the hole collection efficiency generated by green photons ( 500 – 600 nm). The Savannah® S200 was used to deposit films of both TiO2 and Fe2O3 in this study.
Titanium alloying of Fe2O3 is used to increase to improve catalytic utilization for photoelectrochemical oxidation of water
Ref: Kim, D. W. et al. Greenlighting Photoelectrochemical Oxidation of Water by Iron Oxide. ACS Nano 141203161851003 (2014).