Atomic Layer Deposition in Battery Technology

ALD Applications

Atomic Layer Deposition for Lithium Ion Batteries

Ultratech Cambridge Nanotech provides optimal ALD solutions toward all solid-state 3D Li-ion batteries: fully optimized Lithium oxide thin films with low contamination, tunability of the composition for ternary and quaternary lithiated films, in-situ diagnostic for rapid process optimization and film characterization.

Battery Microscopic Image

Thin Film Electrode, Electrolytes and Passivation Layers

By implementing lithium-based ALD films in nanostructured 3D lithium-ion batteries, significant gains in power density, cycling performances during charge/discharge, and safety have been recently reported.

Using Ultratech CNT ALD platforms, electrochemically active materials with high specific capacity such as LiCoO2, LiMn2O4 ternaries or lithium transition metal phosphate quarternaries (e.g., LiFePO4) have been successfully deposited on high aspect ratio 3D nanostructures, leading to fast ion transport and increased power density.

Solid state electrolytes, e.g., lithium phosphate[8], lithium tantalate [12] or LiPON [2] have been deposited both in Savannah and Fiji platforms to achieve tunable high ionic conductivity .

Very thin passivation layers such as Al2O3 (<1nm) have also been shown to significantly improve capacity retention of LIBs during electrochemical cycling by inhibiting the dissolution of the transition metal while enabling the diffusion of the lithium ions through the passivation layers.[15]  Lately Xiao and al. have optimized the performance layer of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode materials using an electrochemically active FePO4 coating[6].

ALD Benefits for
3D Li-ion batteries

Higher Power
Shorter diffusion path in 3D nanostructures lead to higher power density
Discharge Rate
Improved charge / discharge rate from high surface area ratio
Cycle Life
Improved cycle life using ALD passivation layers and low stress films
Non-flammable solid-state electrolytes

Battery ALD Results

Conformal LiFePO4 cathode film deposited on carbon nanotube exhibit excellent discharge capacity and rate capability [10]

Battery ALD Results

Deposition of Li5.1TaO2 solid electrolyte in high aspect ratio AAO with Li+ ion conductivity of 2E-8S/cm [13]

Battery ALD Results

In-situ XPS demonstration carbon-free Li2O ALD with LiOtBu / H2O in Fiji

Battery ALD Results

LiPON solid electrolyte deposited by ALD. Ionic conductivity is tuned by %N content in film [2]

REFERENCES – Recent publications done on Ultratech CNT ALD platforms

  1. Liu, J. et al. Atomically Precise Growth of Sodium Titanates as Anode Materials for High-Rate and Ultralong Cycle-Life Sodium-Ion Batteries. J. Mater. Chem. A (2015). doi:10.1039/C5TA08435K
  2. Kozen, A. C., Pearse, A. J., Lin, C.-F., Noked, M. & Rubloff, G. W. Atomic Layer Deposition of the Solid Electrolyte LiPON. Chem Mater 150709110756002–13 (2015). doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b01654
  3. Ahmed, B. et al. Surface Passivation of MoO3 Nanorods by Atomic Layer Deposition toward High Rate Durable Li Ion Battery Anodes. Acs Appl Mater Inter 150612140338000–10 (2015). doi:10.1021/acsami.5b03395
  4. Ahmed, B., Anjum, D. H., Hedhili, M. N. & Alshareef, H. N. Mechanistic Insight into the Stability of HfO2‐Coated MoS2 Nanosheet Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries. Small n/a–n/a (2015). doi:10.1002/smll.201500919
  5. Kozen, A. C. et al. Next-Generation Lithium Metal Anode Engineering via Atomic Layer Deposition. ACS Nano 150513155622005–30 (2015). doi:10.1021/acsnano.5b02166
  6. Xiao, B. et al. Unravelling the Role of Electrochemically Active FePO4 Coating by Atomic Layer Deposition for Increased High‐Voltage Stability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Material. Advanced Science n/a–n/a (2015). doi:10.1002/advs.201500022
  7. Liu, J. et al. Atomic layer deposition of amorphous iron phosphates on carbon nanotubes as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Electrochimica Acta (2014). doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2014.12.158
  8. Wang, B. et al. Atomic layer deposition of lithium phosphates as solid-state electrolytes for all-solid-state microbatteries. Nanotechnology 25, 504007 (2014).
  9. Kozen, A. C. et al. Atomic Layer Deposition and In-situ Characterization of Ultraclean Lithium Oxide and Lithium Hydroxide. J. Phys. Chem. C 141106012144006 (2014). doi:10.1021/jp509298r
  10. Liu, J. et al. Rational Design of Atomic-Layer-Deposited LiFePO4 as a High-Performance Cathode for Lithium-Ion Batteries. Advanced Materials n/a–n/a (2014). doi:10.1002/adma.201401805
  11. Yesibolati, N. et al. SnO2 Anode Surface Passivation by Atomic Layer Deposited HfO2 Improves Li-Ion Battery Performance. Small n/a–n/a (2014). doi:10.1002/smll.201303898
  12. Lecordier, L., Insitu process optimization of lithium-based multicomponent oxides, ALD2014, Kyoto Japan
  13. Liu, J. et al. Atomic Layer Deposition of Lithium Tantalate Solid-State Electrolytes. J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 20260–20267 (2013).
  14. Kim, H. et al. Plasma‐Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Ultrathin Oxide Coatings for Stabilized Lithium–Sulfur Batteries. Adv. Energy Mater. 3, 1308–1315 (2013).
  15. Bettge, M. et al. Improving high-capacity Li1.2Ni0.15Mn0.55Co0.1O2-based lithium-ion cells by modifiying the positive electrode with alumina. J Power Sources 233, 346–357 (2013).
  16. Lee, J.-T., Wang, F.-M., Cheng, C.-S., Li, C.-C. & Lin, C.-H. Low-temperature atomic layer deposited Al2O3 thin film on layer structure cathode for enhanced cycleability in lithium-ion batteries. Electrochimica Acta 55, 4002–4006 (2010).